Selection Of Common Lathe Cutting Fluid


The cutting fluid should be selected according to the specific conditions of workpiece material, tool material, processing content and process requirements.
(1) According to the workpiece material selection
1) For rough machining of steel parts, generally use low-concentration emulsion, and when finishing, use mineral oil or extreme pressure cutting oil.
2) When roughing gray cast iron and other brittle metals, due to the low tensile strength of the material and the small plastic deformation, when the tool cuts, it is squeezed into chipping chips on the sliding surface, and the contact friction with the front of the tool The force is very small, and the cutting temperature in the front is relatively low. Therefore, ordinary lathes generally do not use cutting fluid. When finishing, in order to reduce the surface roughness value and cutting heat of the workpiece, kerosene or 5%~10% high concentration emulsion can be used.
3) When roughing non-ferrous metals such as copper or aluminum and their alloys, generally do not add cutting fluid. When the ordinary lathe is finished turning, the aluminum can be filled with an appropriate amount of kerosene, and the copper can be filled with 7% N10% emulsion.
4) When cutting magnesium alloys, it is strictly forbidden to use cutting fluid to prevent burning and fire.
(2) Select according to the processing content
1) During rough machining, due to the large amount of cutting, more cutting heat is generated, the temperature of the cutting area is higher, and the tool wear is larger. At this time, a cooling-based cutting fluid should be used to reduce the cutting temperature.
2) When finishing, the precision and surface quality of the workpiece are required to be high, and mineral oil or extreme pressure cutting oil mainly for lubrication should be selected.
3) When processing precision tools and measuring tools such as taps, wrench teeth, thread plug gauges or thread ring gauges, ordinary lathes should use vegetable oil or vulcanized oil that has been diluted and added with active agents due to the high strength and precision requirements of the material.
“During deep hole machining, the tool is working in a semi-closed state, which makes chip removal difficult, easily causes chips to wrap around and gather, affect the normal operation of cutting, and may damage the cutting edge and the surface of the workpiece. At this time, a lower viscosity should be used. The extreme pressure cutting oil is injected with sufficient pressure and flow, and the blasting force will flush out the chips in time.
(3) Select according to the tool material 1) High-speed steel tool. Select according to workpiece material and processing content.
2) Carbide cutting tools. Ordinary lathe cemented carbide is made of carbides with high hardness and melting point and bonding metals such as cobalt and molybdenum, which are pressed and sintered by powder metallurgy, and have high thermal hardness, so cutting fluid is generally not added. Ordinary lathes should use cooling-based cutting fluids when processing some materials with high hardness, high strength and poor thermal conductivity. Ordinary lathes must be poured continuously from the beginning to avoid sudden cooling of cemented carbide inserts. produce brittle cracks.

 


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